If you want to skip the data downloading, you can download the data below (you’ll likely need to right click and choose “Save Link As…"):
Live coding example
(This is a slightly cleaned up version of the code from the video.)
First, we load the libraries we’ll be using:
library(tidyverse) # For ggplot, dplyr, and friends library(WDI) # Get data from the World Bank library(ggrepel) # For non-overlapping labels # You need to install ggtext from GitHub. Follow the instructions at # https://github.com/wilkelab/ggtext library(ggtext) # For fancier text handling
indicators <- c("SP.POP.TOTL", # Population "EN.ATM.CO2E.PC", # CO2 emissions "NY.GDP.PCAP.KD") # GDP per capita wdi_co2_raw <- WDI(country = "all", indicators, extra = TRUE, start = 1995, end = 2015)
Then we clean the data by removing non-country countries and renaming some of the columns.
wdi_clean <- wdi_co2_raw %>% filter(region != "Aggregates") %>% select(iso2c, iso3c, country, year, population = SP.POP.TOTL, co2_emissions = EN.ATM.CO2E.PC, gdp_per_cap = NY.GDP.PCAP.KD, region, income)
Clean and reshape data
Next we’ll do some substantial filtering and reshaping so that we can end up with the rankings of CO~2~ emissions in 1995 and 2014. I annotate as much as possible below so you can see what’s happening in each step.
co2_rankings <- wdi_clean %>% # Get rid of smaller countries filter(population > 200000) %>% # Only look at two years filter(year %in% c(1995, 2014)) %>% # Get rid of all the rows that have missing values in co2_emissions drop_na(co2_emissions) %>% # Look at each year individually and rank countries based on their emissions that year group_by(year) %>% mutate(ranking = rank(co2_emissions)) %>% ungroup() %>% # Only select a handful of columns, mostly just the newly created "ranking" # column and some country identifiers select(iso3c, country, year, region, income, ranking) %>% # Right now the data is tidy and long, but we want to widen it and create # separate columns for emissions in 1995 and in 2014. pivot_wider() will make # new columns based on the existing "year" column (that's what `names_from` # does), and it will add "rank_" as the prefix, so that the new columns will # be "rank_1995" and "rank_2014". The values that go in those new columns will # come from the existing "ranking" column pivot_wider(names_from = year, names_prefix = "rank_", values_from = ranking) %>% # Find the difference in ranking between 2014 and 1995 mutate(rank_diff = rank_2014 - rank_1995) %>% # Remove all rows where there's a missing value in the rank_diff column drop_na(rank_diff) %>% # Make an indicator variable that is true of the absolute value of the # difference in rankings is greater than 25. 25 is arbitrary here—that just # felt like a big change in rankings mutate(big_change = ifelse(abs(rank_diff) >= 25, TRUE, FALSE)) %>% # Make another indicator variable that indicates if the rank improved by a # lot, worsened by a lot, or didn't change much. We use the case_when() # function, which is like a fancy version of ifelse() that takes multiple # conditions. This is how it generally works: # # case_when( # some_test ~ value_if_true, # some_other_test ~ value_if_true, # TRUE ~ value_otherwise #) mutate(better_big_change = case_when( rank_diff <= -25 ~ "Rank improved", rank_diff >= 25 ~ "Rank worsened", TRUE ~ "Rank changed a little" ))
Here’s what that reshaped data looked like before:
head(wdi_clean) ## # A tibble: 6 × 9 ## iso2c iso3c country year population co2_emissions gdp_per_cap region income ## <chr> <chr> <chr> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <chr> <chr> ## 1 AD AND Andorra 2015 78011 NA 41768. Europe & Central Asia High income ## 2 AD AND Andorra 2004 76244 7.36 47033. Europe & Central Asia High income ## 3 AD AND Andorra 2001 67341 7.79 41421. Europe & Central Asia High income ## 4 AD AND Andorra 2002 70049 7.59 42396. Europe & Central Asia High income ## 5 AD AND Andorra 2014 79213 5.83 40790. Europe & Central Asia High income ## 6 AD AND Andorra 1995 63850 6.66 32918. Europe & Central Asia High income
And here’s what it looks like now:
head(co2_rankings) ## # A tibble: 6 × 9 ## iso3c country region income rank_1995 rank_2014 rank_diff big_change better_big_change ## <chr> <chr> <chr> <chr> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <lgl> <chr> ## 1 ARE United Arab Emirates Middle East & North Africa High income 167 171 4 FALSE Rank changed a little ## 2 AFG Afghanistan South Asia Low income 8 24 16 FALSE Rank changed a little ## 3 ALB Albania Europe & Central Asia Upper middle income 54 78 24 FALSE Rank changed a little ## 4 ARM Armenia Europe & Central Asia Upper middle income 71 76 5 FALSE Rank changed a little ## 5 AGO Angola Sub-Saharan Africa Lower middle income 59 61 2 FALSE Rank changed a little ## 6 ARG Argentina Latin America & Caribbean High income 103 119 16 FALSE Rank changed a little
Plot the data and annotate
I use IBM Plex Sans in this plot. You can download it from Google Fonts.
# These three functions make it so all geoms that use text, label, and # label_repel will use IBM Plex Sans as the font. Those layers are *not* # influenced by whatever you include in the base_family argument in something # like theme_bw(), so ordinarily you'd need to specify the font in each # individual annotate(geom = "text") layer or geom_label() layer, and that's # tedious! This removes that tediousness. update_geom_defaults("text", list(family = "IBM Plex Sans")) update_geom_defaults("label", list(family = "IBM Plex Sans")) update_geom_defaults("label_repel", list(family = "IBM Plex Sans")) ggplot(co2_rankings, aes(x = rank_1995, y = rank_2014)) + # Add a reference line that goes from the bottom corner to the top corner annotate(geom = "segment", x = 0, xend = 175, y = 0, yend = 175) + # Add points and color them by the type of change in rankings geom_point(aes(color = better_big_change)) + # Add repelled labels. Only use data where big_change is TRUE. Fill them by # the type of change (so they match the color in geom_point() above) and use # white text geom_label_repel(data = filter(co2_rankings, big_change == TRUE), aes(label = country, fill = better_big_change), color = "white") + # Add notes about what the outliers mean in the bottom left and top right # corners. These are italicized and light grey. The text in the bottom corner # is justified to the right with hjust = 1, and the text in the top corner is # justified to the left with hjust = 0 annotate(geom = "text", x = 170, y = 6, label = "Outliers improving", fontface = "italic", hjust = 1, color = "grey50") + annotate(geom = "text", x = 2, y = 170, label = "Outliers worsening", fontface = "italic", hjust = 0, color = "grey50") + # Add mostly transparent rectangles in the bottom right and top left corners annotate(geom = "rect", xmin = 0, xmax = 25, ymin = 0, ymax = 25, fill = "#2ECC40", alpha = 0.25) + annotate(geom = "rect", xmin = 150, xmax = 175, ymin = 150, ymax = 175, fill = "#FF851B", alpha = 0.25) + # Add text to define what the rectangles abovee actually mean. The \n in # "highest\nemitters" will put a line break in the label annotate(geom = "text", x = 40, y = 6, label = "Lowest emitters", hjust = 0, color = "#2ECC40") + annotate(geom = "text", x = 162.5, y = 135, label = "Highest\nemitters", hjust = 0.5, vjust = 1, lineheight = 1, color = "#FF851B") + # Add arrows between the text and the rectangles. These use the segment geom, # and the arrows are added with the arrow() function, which lets us define the # angle of the arrowhead and the length of the arrowhead pieces. Here we use # 0.5 lines, which is a unit of measurement that ggplot uses internally (think # of how many lines of text fit in the plot). We could also use unit(1, "cm") # or unit(0.25, "in") or anything else annotate(geom = "segment", x = 38, xend = 20, y = 6, yend = 6, color = "#2ECC40", arrow = arrow(angle = 15, length = unit(0.5, "lines"))) + annotate(geom = "segment", x = 162.5, xend = 162.5, y = 140, yend = 155, color = "#FF851B", arrow = arrow(angle = 15, length = unit(0.5, "lines"))) + # Use three different colors for the points scale_color_manual(values = c("grey50", "#0074D9", "#FF4136")) + # Use two different colors for the filled labels. There are no grey labels, so # we don't have to specify that color scale_fill_manual(values = c("#0074D9", "#FF4136")) + # Make the x and y axes expand all the way to the edges of the plot area and # add breaks every 25 units from 0 to 175 scale_x_continuous(expand = c(0, 0), breaks = seq(0, 175, 25)) + scale_y_continuous(expand = c(0, 0), breaks = seq(0, 175, 25)) + # Add labels! There are a couple fancy things here. # 1. In the title we wrap the 2 of CO2 in the HTML <sub></sub> tag so that the # number gets subscripted. The only way this will actually get parsed as # HTML is if we tell the plot.title to use element_markdown() in the # theme() function, and element_markdown() comes from the ggtext package. # 2. In the subtitle we bold the two words **improved** and **worsened** using # Markdown asterisks. We also wrap these words with HTML span tags with # inline CSS to specify the color of the text. Like the title, this will # only be processed and parsed as HTML and Markdown if we tell the p # lot.subtitle to use element_markdown() in the theme() function. labs(x = "Rank in 1995", y = "Rank in 2014", title = "Changes in CO<sub>2</sub> emission rankings between 1995 and 2014", subtitle = "Countries that <span style='color: #0074D9'>**improved**</span> or <span style='color: #FF4136'>**worsened**</span> more than 25 positions in the rankings highlighted", caption = "Source: The World Bank.\nCountries with populations of less than 200,000 excluded.") + # Turn off the legends for color and fill, since the subtitle includes that guides(color = "none", fill = "none") + # Use theme_bw() with IBM Plex Sans theme_bw(base_family = "IBM Plex Sans") + # Tell the title and subtitle to be treated as Markdown/HTML, make the title # 1.6x the size of the base font, and make the subtitle 1.3x the size of the # base font. Also add a little larger margin on the right of the plot so that # the 175 doesn't get cut off. theme(plot.title = element_markdown(face = "bold", size = rel(1.6)), plot.subtitle = element_markdown(size = rel(1.3)), plot.margin = unit(c(0.5, 1, 0.5, 0.5), units = "lines"))